it must contain adequate amounts of essential nutrient contents, be of suitable acid-alkaline reaction and free of substances toxic to plant growth.
it should be of such soil structure that water drains through and air gains ready admittance, but not so loose that it does not retain enough moisture and nutrients for the plants’ needs;
it should contain an abundance of favorable bacterial and other helpful soil organisms and a minimum of harmful ones such as nematodes. Biological improvement naturally follows betterment of chemical and physical conditions.
Organic farming system in India is not new and is being followed from ancient time. It is a method of farming system which primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes (crop, animal and farm wastes, aquatic wastes) and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes (biofertilizers) to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco friendly pollution free environment.
Soil health is the foundation of organic farming systems. Fertile soil provides essential nutrients to plants, while supporting a diverse and active biotic community that helps the soil resist environmental degradation. Organic producers face unique challenges in managing soil productivity. Current guidelines on nutrient management for organic farmers are fairly general in nature. Organic farmers rely on intuition and observation, advice from vendors, conventional soil tests, and their own experience to make decisions about the quantity and types of soil amendments to apply. As a result, there is tremendous variability in both the quantities of nutrients applied and the resulting soil fertility status on organically managed farms. Organic farmers seek to "build the soil" or enhance its inherent fertility by using crop rotations, animal and green manures, and cover crops. Crop rotation and tillage practices must provide an appropriate seedbed and pest control while minimizing erosion. Nutrient stocks are maintained through use of natural (non-synthetic) substances